We appeal to organizations and individuals who have told us their interest in this great business cooperation. Submit our call in your departments, teachers, psychologists, physicians, psychiatrists, parents, could join us. Departmental seminars, and before preparing a national conference to be held March 27 in St-Etienne prepare a gathering that could have a decisive influence for teaching evolution that will be under the sign of the MODERNIZATION OF EDUCATION.
C. FREINET. http://www.icem-freinet.fr/archives/educ/60-61/11-mars61/3-5.pdf
In: The Educator CEL For teachers review French> Scripture-reading instructional principles> natural method> natural method of teaching reading and writing techniques> reading methods March 1961 Global Reading, alphabetic writing, reading and writing natural.
The Notebooks of Pedagogy and Professional Orientation published in Liege realize their No. April 1960 untranslated thesis in French of a German pedagogue Paul Dohrmann, we believe it is useful to look closely to try to enlighten even the problem of reading. physics hw answers
The author first recalls that in the history of mankind there are three major types of writing: 1. – The symbolic writing, such as the skull pasted on electricity poles. 2. – The ideographic writing, hieroglyphics for example.
Reading these two sorts of writing relies exclusively on memory (Chinese writing has 50 000 characters to memorize; Chinese core culture up only 2 000 to 4 000 characters). 3. – In our alphabetic writing, the unit is its “On what is read in the alphabetic writing? Certainly, one can read as if writing was ideographic.
When, in the early weeks of the primary school, we teach ‘globally’ words to the child, we present them as simple ideograms, and is a leading source of discussion and unfortunate adventures of concern. Because many are probably those who, having done so, think they have practiced a valid global method. But it is not because it is in fact contrary to the very economy of our alphabetic writing.
This is what will allow us to demonstrate Dohrmann; but we must first analyze his deep reading mechanism “From the word to the letter:” If we break our language still simpler words, we soon find ourselves before a first barrier: the word, which is the most small signifying unit. If we analyze more, we no longer consider the meaning but sound; language becomes at that time a purely abstract object. However, the number of sounds is almost infinite.
Say the word “damaged” does not amount to pronounce isolation and neutral sounds a-bi-me; each of these sounds responds to its neighbors and brings them a special coloring. In other words, everything is his position, his relative. To develop alphabetic writing, so we had to unify, to neutralize the sounds, abstracting.
But when the child learns to read, he did not sufficiently trained ear to dissect the position of sounds; so it is very difficult to establish the relationship between ‘relative’ sounds he hears and neutral sounds that make up the alphabet. And so we remain silent in passing a first trial of this ancient learning reading system that began with isolated sounds. ” In the letter the word “Moreover, we now know that when the child learns to read say isolating the first letter of a word, it sets a pure or neutral which in itself is absurd, To read, you have to have the vision of the other letters (sounds) to know what tone to them, there is only relative sounds.
Suppose a child deciphers the word “pipe”. He will first – if one proceeds by acquiring single words – read pure tone and get p-p-e. This succession of sounds can not say anything, but if he understands that reading is to take knowledge of the meaning, he will wonder what is spoken; then he will think the word pipe and reread the word, this time correctly because it has identified all.
C is when the child discovers the sense that it goes deciphering reading. ” In the letter to the sentence: “When we read. we do not stop after each recognized word, reading flows. Let’s start with a simple experiment. Let us read, “Brother invites you I should make it my tell” and “I told my brother that he should visit you.” It takes a lot more time to read the first of these two sentences to read more second in the first case, we are tempted to pause after each word.
Knowing how to read a word allows no current reading: Dohrmann This leads to consider that there are four stages in reading: 1st Stage: The interrogation. – Here is a word that the child has never read, “And the cart are harnessed two … (horses). At that time, he consciously or unconsciously ask: “What are we well have harnessed the cart? “The author then stresses how important it is that the child is interested in the text it reads 2nd Stage The assumption –We would say the experimental trial and error. – Either the phrase “The hat (red).
By the time he hypothesized, the child may think of both a series of adjectives: beautiful, red, green, etc … He immediately begins to decipher the word lacks. If he identifies the first letter of the word “r” hypothesis “beautiful” is eliminated.
Remain pink, red, round … The “o” is not enough to resolve the problem. It will read further. It may also be that in the assumptions made by the child, the desired word is not.
At that moment, he stops, hesitates, looking in his mind (and is therefore active perfectly). Once a hypothesis seems satisfactory, he continues … From the richness of the child’s experience will depend on the wealth of associations.
We know all this. The author, who does not know our natural method concludes the need to involve the child in the selected text to be in a language that is familiar to him. We are better because we bring deep interest in life. 3rd Stage Verification of the hypothesis.
4th Stage was definitely adopted the hypothesis and discarded. We do not insist because it is there, in its perfection the trial and error process that we have described many times and which one can read the analysis in black book “Psychology Test Sensitive” (1). CONCLUSIONS FIRST. “The false globalism is to treat our alphabetic writing as an ideographic writing.
The trial of this method has already been done. Let us recall two main points: whether it is desirable to begin learning to read by the acquisition of some basic ideograms, we must not forget that our writing is not suitable for reading by global visual images (compare Chinese, where the fretboard is in square form easily understood by the eye, and its French translation “money order”); a number of small words (articles, verbs, auxiliary, etc …) can (and should) be acquired early as ideograms and be used throughout life as such. ” The question is how will this acquisition.
For mechanical repetition, or, conversely, by our method by studying these words in the context of free texts. “In reading, the meaning is decisive and any reading is above all a work of thought, ideation (we will say more of life). If we try to give a quantitative idea of ??the relative importance of factors involved in reading is obtained after Dohrmann, 10% for the visual image (ideogram), 10% for single letters, 80% working thought.
The general conclusion seems vital to our purpose: we will not literally the word, but directly from the letter to the sentence as part of a context of a situation, a diagram. Thus reads globally and regardless of learning to read method, it leads to an overall reading or it fails. This globalism, it is in the situation in the scheme need to consider it.